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Field and classroom initiatives for portable sequence-based monitoring of dengue virus in Brazil

Nat Commun. 2021 Apr 16;12(1):2296. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-22607-0.ABSTRACTBrazil experienced a large dengue virus (DENV) epidemic in 2019, highlighting a continuous struggle with effective control and public health preparedness. Using Oxford Nanopore sequencing, we led field and classroom initiatives for the monitoring of DENV in Brazil, generating 227 novel genome sequences of DENV1-2 from 85 municipalities (2015-2019). This equated to an over 50% increase in the number of DENV genomes from Brazil available in public databases.

Short report: Introduction of chikungunya virus ECSA genotype into the Brazilian Midwest and its dispersion through the Americas

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Apr 16;15(4):e0009290. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0009290. eCollection 2021 Apr.ABSTRACTSince introduction into Brazil in 2014, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has presented sustained transmission, although much is unknown about its circulation in the midwestern states. Here, we analyze 24 novel partial and near complete CHIKV genomes from Cuiaba, an urban metropolis located in the Brazilian midwestern state of Mato Grosso (MT). Nanopore technology was used for sequencing CHIKV complete genomes.

Co-morbidities and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease in England: A 10-year cohort analysis using hospital episodes statistics (HES) data

Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2021 Apr 1;89:102567. doi: 10.1016/j.bcmd.2021.102567. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPatients with a primary diagnosis of sickle cell disease (SCD) with or without crisis during the 10-year period January 2009 to December 2018 were identified in the HES Admitted Patient Care (APC) dataset and matched with the Office for National Statistics (ONS) mortality dataset. Three sub-cohorts were defined: 'crises', 'transfusions' and 'other SCD'.

Evolutionarily stable strategies are well studied in periodically fluctuating populations

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 May 4;118(18):e2102001118. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2102001118.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33853857 | DOI:10.1073/pnas.2102001118

A theoretical analysis of tumour containment

Nat Ecol Evol. 2021 Apr 12. doi: 10.1038/s41559-021-01428-w. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecent studies have shown that a strategy aiming for containment, not elimination, can control tumour burden more effectively in vitro, in mouse models and in the clinic. These outcomes are consistent with the hypothesis that emergence of resistance to cancer therapy may be prevented or delayed by exploiting competitive ecological interactions between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant tumour cell subpopulations.

Pneumococcal Competition Modulates Antibiotic Resistance in the Pre-Vaccination Era: A Modelling Study

Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Mar 16;9(3):265. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030265.ABSTRACTThe ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistant strains and high frequencies of antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae poses a major public health challenge. How and which ecological and evolutionary mechanisms maintain the coexistence of antibiotic resistant and susceptible strains remains largely an open question. We developed an individual-based, stochastic model expanding on a previous pneumococci modelling framework.

Increased quality of <em>in natura</em> and cryopreserved semen of water buffaloes supplemented with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from the palm oil industry

Anim Reprod. 2020 Nov 24;17(4):e20200522. doi: 10.1590/1984-3143-AR2020-0522.ABSTRACTRuminant energy supplementation with vegetable oils or fats has been standing out worldwide and oil palm processing has been receiving growing interest. This study assessed the effect of supplementation with saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from the palm oil industry on the lipid profile of seminal plasma and of the sperm membrane, as well as on the morphological and functional characteristics of raw and cryopreserved buffalo semen.

The antigenic anatomy of SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain

Cell. 2021 Feb 18:S0092-8674(21)00221-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.032. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAntibodies are crucial to immune protection against SARS-CoV-2, with some in emergency use as therapeutics. Here, we identify 377 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the virus spike and focus mainly on 80 that bind the receptor binding domain (RBD). We devise a competition data-driven method to map RBD binding sites.

Real-time seroprevalence and exposure levels of emerging pathogens in infection-naive host populations

Sci Rep. 2021 Mar 12;11(1):5825. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-84672-1.ABSTRACTFor endemic pathogens, seroprevalence mimics overall exposure and is minimally influenced by the time that recent infections take to seroconvert. Simulating spatially-explicit and stochastic outbreaks, we set out to explore how, for emerging pathogens, the mix of exponential growth in infection events and a constant rate for seroconversion events could lead to real-time significant differences in the total numbers of exposed versus seropositive.

Emergence of a SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern with mutations in spike glycoprotein

Nature. 2021 Mar 9. doi: 10.1038/s41586-021-03402-9. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTContinued uncontrolled transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in many parts of the world is creating the conditions for significant virus evolution1,2. Here, we describe a new SARS-CoV-2 lineage (501Y.V2) characterised by eight lineage-defining mutations in the spike protein, including three at important residues in the receptor-binding domain (K417N, E484K and N501Y) that may have functional significance3-5.

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