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Does differential mortality after parental investment affect sex ratio evolution? No

Evolution. 2021 Oct 11. doi: 10.1111/evo.14374. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe classical view of sex ratio evolution, popularised by RA Fisher, is that the sex ratio at birth should be equal when males and females require the same level of parental investment. Thus, while differences in mortality between the sexes during parental investment will cause deviations from an equal sex ratio at birth, differential mortality after parental investment should have no effect.

Quantitative Determination and Environmental Risk Assessment of 102 Chemicals of Emerging Concern in Wastewater-Impacted Rivers Using Rapid Direct-Injection Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Molecules. 2021 Sep 7;26(18):5431. doi: 10.3390/molecules26185431.ABSTRACTThe rapid source identification and environmental risk assessment (ERA) of hundreds of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in river water represent a significant analytical challenge. Herein, a potential solution involving a rapid direct-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of 102 CECs (151 qualitatively) in river water is presented and applied across six rivers in Germany and Switzerland at high spatial resolution.

Drug-induced resistance evolution necessitates less aggressive treatment

PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Sep 23;17(9):e1009418. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009418. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIncreasing body of experimental evidence suggests that anticancer and antimicrobial therapies may themselves promote the acquisition of drug resistance by increasing mutability. The successful control of evolving populations requires that such biological costs of control are identified, quantified and included to the evolutionarily informed treatment protocol.

Case report: Rare convexity meningeal chondroma mimicking a meningioma

Surg Neurol Int. 2021 Aug 24;12:426. doi: 10.25259/SNI_558_2021. eCollection 2021.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Intracranial chondromas account for 0.2-0.3% of all intracranial neoplastic lesions and less than a quarter arise in the convexity or falx. Despite its benign nature, exceedingly rare malignant transformations exist. The misdiagnosis with meningiomas is frequent and may be related with chondromas' similar insidious clinical presentation and imaging features.

Child mortality from sickle cell disease in Nigeria: a model-estimated, population-level analysis of data from the 2018 Demographic and Health Survey

Lancet Haematol. 2021 Sep 2:S2352-3026(21)00216-7. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00216-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTBACKGROUND: Child mortality from sickle cell disease in sub-Saharan Africa is presumed to be high but is not well quantified. This uncertainty contributes to the neglect of sickle cell disease and delays the prioritisation of interventions.

Malaria infection and severe disease risks in Africa

Science. 2021 Aug 20;373(6557):926-931. doi: 10.1126/science.abj0089.ABSTRACTThe relationship between community prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and the burden of severe, life-threatening disease remains poorly defined. To examine the three most common severe malaria phenotypes from catchment populations across East Africa, we assembled a dataset of 6506 hospital admissions for malaria in children aged 3 months to 9 years from 2006 to 2020. Admissions were paired with data from community parasite infection surveys.

Inferring the dynamic of mutated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells induced by IFNα in myeloproliferative neoplasms

Blood. 2021 Aug 18:blood.2021010986. doi: 10.1182/blood.2021010986. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTClassical BCR-ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are clonal disorders of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) caused mainly by recurrent mutations in genes encoding JAK2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), or the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL). Interferon alpha (IFNα) has demonstrated some efficacy in inducing molecular remission in MPN.

Phylogenetic Analysis of <em>Massilia phlebovirus</em> in Portugal

Viruses. 2021 Jul 20;13(7):1412. doi: 10.3390/v13071412.ABSTRACTIn the last two decades, molecular surveys of arboviruses have enabled the identification of several new viruses, contributing to the knowledge of viral diversity and providing important epidemiological data regarding possible new emerging viruses. A combination of diagnostic assays, Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic inference are here used to characterize two new Massilia phlebovirus strains isolated from sandflies collected in the Arrábida region, Portugal.

West Nile Virus in Brazil

Pathogens. 2021 Jul 15;10(7):896. doi: 10.3390/pathogens10070896.ABSTRACTBackground: West Nile virus (WNV) was first sequenced in Brazil in 2019, when it was isolated from a horse in the Espírito Santo state. Despite multiple studies reporting serological evidence suggestive of past circulation since 2004, WNV remains a low priority for surveillance and public health, such that much is still unknown about its genomic diversity, evolution, and transmission in the country.

A comparison of small-area deprivation indicators for public-health surveillance in Sweden

Scand J Public Health. 2021 Jul 20:14034948211030353. doi: 10.1177/14034948211030353. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAIMS: The aims of this study were to construct a small-area index of multiple deprivation (IMD) from single deprivation indicators (SDIs) and to compare the explanatory power of the IMD and SDIs with regard to mortality.